By Gregory White
Examines how emerging fiscal integration with Europe affects Tunisia and Morocco.
Read Online or Download A Comparative Political Economy of Tunisia and Morocco: On the Outside of Europe Looking in PDF
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Additional resources for A Comparative Political Economy of Tunisia and Morocco: On the Outside of Europe Looking in
During the colonial era, much like Tunisia, French authorities sought to develop Morocco’s export crops for use in the metropole. As Vafﬁer-Pollet wrote in 1906: “The true fortune of Morocco resides in its agriculture. 40 The effort to develop Morocco à la Californie has had a lasting impact on Moroccan agriculture, leaving both a legacy of irrigated lands as well as a bimodal class structure from the colonial era. Divisions between an afﬂuent rural elite and a larger, much poorer rural sector tear Morocco’s society today (as well as Tunisia’s).
Most signiﬁcantly, it is very difﬁcult to ascribe a favorable policy outcome for a given class or coalition to that entity’s dominance, and it is virtually impossible to empirically demonstrate that it engineered or controlled the change. In addition, the boundaries between entities are rarely distinct, and the entities themselves are not homogenous. Lastly, social coalitions, groups, and classes are mutable, not static, categories. 39 These concerns, however, need not be debilitating. The problem of theoretical circularity concerning power relations does exist.
Thus, the admission and enhanced market access for the new members reduced the demand for imports of similar Maghribi products. 9 Tunisia Morocco Tunisia 1989–94 1989–94 1998 Sources: UNDP, Human Development Report 1995 and 1997 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995 and 1997); World Bank, Social Indicators of Development 1996 and 1997 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996 and 1997); and World Bank, Entering the 21st Century (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000). S. 2 GENERATIONS EUROPEAN COMMISSION OF TREATIES BETWEEN THE MAGHRIB AND THE Generation Date Signatories 1st—Association Accords 2nd—Cooperation Accords • First Protocol • Second Protocol • Third Protocol • Fourth Protocol 3rd—Partnership Accords March 1969 March-April 1976 • 1978–1981 • 1982–1986 • 1987–1991 • 1992–1995 November 1995 Tunisia and Morocco Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria Tunisia and Morocco with the Maghribi countries.