By Stephen Chapman MB BS MRCS MRCP FRCR, Richard Nakielny MA BM BCh FRCR
This publication offers a synoptic description of the sensible info of the way to hold out the typical methods in imaging on which an exam candidate should be anticipated to be universal. It doesn't try to disguise rarer ideas past the scope of the examination or to teach the ensuing photographs. each approach is defined below a collection of normal headings (for instance: tools, symptoms, gear, sufferer practise, approach, aftercare, issues, extra reading).
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Extra resources for A Guide to Radiological Procedures
F. (1975) Editorial. Urography, shock reaction and repeated urography. Am. J. Roentgenol. 1 2 5 , 2 6 4 - 2 6 8 . 49. G. (1 987) Annotation: radiological contrast media. Clin. Radiol. 3 8 , 3-5. 50. G. (1984) The clinical and financial implications of the low-osmolar contrast media. Clin. Radiol. 3 5 , 2 5 1 - 2 5 2 . 5 1 . Granger, R. & Dawson, P. (1991) Guidelines for use of low osmolar intravascular contrast media. Fac. Clin. Radiol. Roy. Coll. Radiol. London. A. A. (1996) Complications in Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology.
30 48 INDICATIONS FOR THE USE OF LOCM The advantages of L O C M are: 1. v. injections. 2. Less tissue toxicity. 3. Reduction in adverse reactions. If it were not for their expense, there would have been a complete switch to LOCM many years ago. The financial implications of using LOCM for all patients and all procedures are so great that a selection process to identify those at risk must be instituted. The following should receive LOCM in preference to H O C M : 49 50,51 1. Those at high risk from the hyperosmolar effects: a.
350 mg I / m l . However, disaggregation occurs easily and this is not likely to be of any clinical significance. 3. Contrast media impair blood clotting and platelet aggregation. LOCM have a minimal effect compared to H O C M . 4. Contrast media have a potentiating effect on the action of heparin. 5. Thrombus formation also occurs and is more common when blood is mixed with LOCM. However, the role of the syringe is also significant and thrombus formation is maximal when blood is slowly withdrawn into a syringe so that it layers on top of the contrast medium, against the wall of the syringe.