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By Martha Schoolman

Traditional narratives of the interval prime as much as the Civil conflict are normally framed in geographical phrases. The sectional descriptors of the North, South, and West, just like the wartime different types of Union, Confederacy, and border states, suggest little regardless of a map of the U.S.. In Abolitionist Geographies, Martha Schoolman contends that antislavery writers continuously refused these typical terms.

Through the idiom Schoolman names “abolitionist geography,” those writers as an alternative expressed their dissenting perspectives concerning the westward extension of slavery, the intensification of the inner slave exchange, and the passage of the Fugitive Slave legislation through beautiful to different anachronistic, partial, or totally fictional north–south and east–west axes. Abolitionism’s West, for example, not often reached past the Mississippi River, yet its East appeared to Britain for ideological notion, its North habitually traversed the Canadian border, and its South frequently spanned the geopolitical divide among the U.S. and the British Caribbean.

Schoolman strains this geography of dissent in the course of the paintings of Martin Delany, Ralph Waldo Emerson, William Wells Brown, and Harriet Beecher Stowe, between others. Her ebook explores new relationships among New England transcendentalism and the British West Indies; African-American cosmopolitanism, Britain, and Haiti; sentimental fiction, Ohio, and Liberia; John Brown’s Appalachia and circum-Caribbean marronage. those connections let us see truly for the 1st time abolitionist literature’s specific and intentional funding in geography as an idiom of political critique, through turns liberal and radical, useful and utopian.

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30 EMERSON’S HEMISPHERE Geographies of Sick Citizenship Nature’s submerged narrative of embodiment invites, therefore, the trope of health as a welcome opportunity for spatialized renunciation as corollary to Sontag’s metaphor of illness as dual citizenship. In Emerson’s case, recovery from sickness is accompanied by a pledge never to need the “passport” to “that other place” again. 10 A literal dual citizen enjoys the full rights of abstract personhood in more than one place, but a sick person is to some degree reminded by illness of those aspects of the self that defy abstraction.

To be a “citizen” of Sontag’s “kingdom of the sick” meant to reside in a warmer climate until both one’s symptoms and the harsh New England weather began to abate. ” To have the pulmonary health to make it through a harsh winter was a sign of wellcitizenship restored. In the case of the Emerson brothers in the fall of 1833, therefore, the hemispheric scale of Edward’s welcome was a sign of mixed news. Ralph Waldo was well enough to be entering rather than leaving New England in November, whereas Edward was to remain in Puerto Rico.

His description of those Africans enslaved in Cuba as “miserable bachelors” offers an experimental equation among the experiences of elite men like Emerson, the mechanics in the audience, and the enslaved whose produce the lecture wants both groups to renounce by relying on the fruits of their own free labor instead. The term “bachelor” has multiple defi nitions, most of which initially seem to be more readily applicable to Emerson and his audience than to the enslaved of Cuba. The term refers most familiarly to an unmarried man, rendering it either particularly apropos or particularly irrelevant to the enslaved who were not usually permitted to marry legally.

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