By Ran Xinquan
Concise and readable, Water Injection For Low Permeability Reservoirs offers operators with the right kind workflow structures and engineering ideas for designing, making plans and enforcing water injection structures that might increase restoration elements. whilst utilized in low permeability or ultra-low permeability reservoirs, water injection is among the low-priced equipment for making sure greatest construction premiums. This e-book offers either theoretical research and sensible circumstances for designing and comparing water injection structures and realizing key construction variables all for making special predictions for oil and water generating premiums, water injection premiums, and restoration efficiency.
This publication essentially explains the features of ultra-low permeability reservoirs and linear stream theories. those subject matters are then utilized to layout and implementation. software circumstances of 4 oilfields are integrated to aid strengthen ideas whereas illustrating the correct workflow for making sure waterflooding functionality research and optimization. The publication can be utilized as a reference for box technical body of workers, or as technical aid for the administration personnel.
- Discusses features of low and ultra-low permeability reservoirs and linear circulate theories
- Provides specified examinations of facets reminiscent of pressure sensitivity, fracturing timing, and nonlinear circulate theory
- Describes layout and implementation of complex waterflooding systems
- Includes genuine case reports from 4 oilfields
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Extra info for Advanced Water Injection for Low Permeability Reservoirs. Theory and Practice
As a result, the output will decline rapidly, the PIs will fall at an annual rate between 25% and 45%, and withdrawing 1% of geological reserves will cause a drop of reservoir pressure by 3B4 MPa. What is worse is that even if the reservoir pressure is raised later, the production and productivity index will be difficult to restore. , the fluid-solid coupling effect. The obvious elastoplasticity of the ultralow-permeability reservoirs leads to high-pressure sensitivity of the formations. In other words, the reservoir porosity and permeability will decline rapidly when the pore pressure drops but will be difficult to restore when the pore pressure rises again.
8 MPa. 6 MPa. 658 MPa/100 m. 56 MPa. All these reservoirs are low pressure and have ultralow permeability, and reservoirs in the blocks of Wuliwan and Panguliang have similar features. 98 MPa. 47 MPa. 43 MPa. 5 μm, showing a high median pressure and strong filtrational resistance. The adoption of advanced injection, therefore, can help maintain the reservoir pressure and shorten the response time. High threshold pressure gradient One major problem in the Changqing Oilfield is a lack of producing energy.
At this lead-in stage, the method of “flooding but not producing” can effectively raise the reservoir pressure. When the pressure in the reservoir reaches a threshold, a reasonable injector-producer spacing can make the working gradient at any point higher than the threshold gradient, thus building an efficient displacing pressure system. The Triassic reservoirs of the Yanchang Group in Changqing have a high threshold gradient. 678 MPa/m (Table 1-8). Under such a high-pressure gradient, it is hard to build up an efficient displacing pressure system with an injectorproducer distance of 300 m in the conventional method, but advanced injection can improve the efficiency of both injection and production.