By Charles J. R. Williams, Dominic R. Kniveton
Compared to many different areas of the area, Africa is very susceptible to the consequences of weather switch and variability. frequent poverty, an in depth sickness burden and wallet of political instability around the continent has ended in a low resilience and restricted adaptative potential of African society to weather comparable shocks and stresses. To compound this vulnerability, there is still huge wisdom gaps on African weather, manifestations of destiny weather swap and variability for the area and the linked difficulties of weather switch affects. examine just about African weather switch calls for an interdisciplinary method linking stories of environmental, political and socio-economic spheres. during this ebook we use various case stories on weather switch and variability in Africa to demonstrate varied ways to the research of weather swap in Africa from around the spectrum of actual, social and political sciences. In doing so we try to focus on a toolbox of methodologies (along with their boundaries and benefits) that could be used to additional the knowledge of the affects of weather swap in Africa and hence aid shape the foundation for concepts to negate the unfavorable implications of weather switch on society.
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Additional info for African Climate and Climate Change: Physical, Social and Political Perspectives
9 Composite plot of zonal wind speed (U) in m/s at 600 mb for excess-climatology (left) and deficit-climatology (right). 1 level Large Scale Features Affecting Ethiopian Rainfall 25 also shows a shift in the region of divergence, creating a dipole structure below the 600 mb level (Fig. 11). This suggests that the shift in the location of the AEJ is associated with a shift of the region of moisture convergence (ITCZ) at lower levels. 4 Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) In Africa, the ITCZ oscillates annually between an extreme northward location of 15◦ N in July and an extreme southward location of 15◦ S in January (Asnani 2005).
There is an opposite pattern between Zone IIb and Zone IV in terms of geopotential height (Fig. 19). A positive geopotential height anomaly over central Africa is associated with deficit rains of Zone IIb and excess rains of Zone IV. For Zone IIb this positive geopotential height anomaly relates to a weaker westerly anomaly. For Zone IV this positive height anomaly over central Africa is associated with westerly inflow from the north Atlantic (around 150 N) and a northward shift of the ITCZ, which in turn leads to high rainfall.
2 Low Level Humidity For all zones, deficit rainfall years are associated with significant negative humidity anomalies over NW Indian Ocean, the Arabian peninsula and East Africa, and positive humidity anomalies over the eastern Indian Ocean and the southeast Atlantic (Fig. 24). Looking at the wind anomaly at 850 mb during deficit rainfall years (Fig. 25), which shows an westerly anomaly over Indian ocean, the westerly anomalies in the Indian ocean will advect humidity to the eastern Indian ocean and at least explaining the observed positive anomalies over eastern Indian ocean and negative anomalies over western Indian Ocean and over the Horn of Africa.