By Pamela O. Long
This e-book presents the ancient historical past for a critical factor within the historical past of technological know-how: the effect of artisans, craftsmen, and different practitioners at the emergent empirical methodologies that characterised the "new sciences" of the past due 16th and 17th centuries. lengthy deals a coherent account and important revision of the "Zilsel thesis," an influential etiological narrative which argues that such craftsmen have been instrumental in bringing in regards to the "Scientific Revolution."
Artisan/Practitioners reassesses the difficulty of artisanal effect from 3 diverse views: the perceived relationships among paintings and nature; the Vitruvian architectural culture with its appreciation of either conception and perform; and the improvement of "trading zones"--arenas within which artisans and realized males communicated in great methods. those advanced social and highbrow advancements, the e-book argues, underlay the improvement of the empirical sciences.
This quantity presents new dialogue and synthesis of a concept that encompasses huge advancements in ecu historical past and learn of the wildlife. it will likely be a important source for college-level instructing, and for students and others attracted to the background of technological know-how, past due medieval and early glossy eu heritage, and the medical Revolution.
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Extra info for Artisan/Practitioners and the Rise of the New Sciences, 1400–1600
If artisanal culture did influence approaches to the investigation of the natural world, it is necessary to investigate anew how and in what ways that influence was exerted and to ask what conditions encouraged such an influence. As will be seen, what emerges is that several categories that were central to the issue—“art” and “nature,” and “artisan” and “scholar”—themselves tended to destabilize in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. “Art” and “nature” came to be seen as closer together, even interchangeable.
Art” in the premodern world was not art in the modern sense, referring to fine arts such as painting and sculpture that today are perceived as different from practical skills such as carpentry and weaving. In the premodern centuries, “art”—or ars as it would be called in Latin; or technē, to use the equivalent Greek word; or artes mechanicae, the mechanical arts, as they were often called after the ninth century— referred to the crafts, handwork, and practices used, for example, in the construction of buildings and in navigation.
1415–1492), and the painter/engineer Leonardo da Vinci—played an important role in disseminating the detailed content of such writings, making them available for further utilization. A very differently oriented non-Marxist scholar who contributed to the thesis of artisanal influence was the American sociologist Robert K. Merton, who developed his own version of the thesis in his Harvard dissertation in the 1930s. D. in sociology in 1938 from Harvard University, where he was influenced by George Sarton (1884–1956), a Belgian chemist and historian considered the founder of the discipline of the history of science.