By Giulio Aniello Santoro M.D., Ph.D., Giuseppe Di Falco M.D. (auth.)
Read or Download Atlas of Endoanal and Endorectal Ultrasonography: Staging and Treatment Options for Anorectal Cancer PDF
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Extra info for Atlas of Endoanal and Endorectal Ultrasonography: Staging and Treatment Options for Anorectal Cancer
Of course, the first problem encountered by users of endoanal ultrasound (EAUS) and endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) has been to believe in the reliability of US imaging. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement are statistically stated as "good" or "very good" , even if measurements of each anal structure do not provide homogeneous morphometric results . The ultimate technology, using a 36o-degree endoprobe, has shown fascinating features in delineating accurately the anatomical structures of the anus and rectum, being (together with the simplicity of use, comfort for patients, and low costs) one of the most interesting characteristics of this kind of investigation.
Radiology 1995;197:671-7 6. Schafer A, Enck P, Furst G, Kahn T, Frieling T, Lubke HJ. Anatomy of the anal sphincters. Comparison of anal endosonography to magnetic resonance imaging. Dis Colon Rectum 1994;37:777-81 7. Sultan AH, Kamm MA, Talbot IC, Nicholls RJ, Bartram CI. Anal endosonography for identifying external sphincter defects confirmed histologically. Br J Surg 1994;81:463-5 8. Vaizey CJ, Kamm MA, Bartram CI. Primary degeneration of the internal anal sphincter as a cause of passive faecal incontinence.
In the last two decades increasing attention has been dedicated in order to both increase knowledge on the pelvic floor anatomy (possibly related to physiology and pathophysiology) and improve technologies for diagnosis. In particular, ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) have acquired the right to be the most useful procedures in pelvic floor imaging. , endoscopy, anorectal manometry and electrophysiology, defecography) to have a complete assessment of neoplastic and functional anorectal diseases.