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By W. G. Lambert

For a lot of the final half the 20 th century, W. G. Lambert committed a lot of his study strength and energy to the examine of Babylonian texts facing Mesopotamian principles concerning construction, together with specially Enuma Elish. This quantity, which seems to be nearly precisely 2 years after Lambert's loss of life, distills a life of studying by means of the world's ultimate specialist on those texts. Lambert offers a whole transliteration and translation of the 7 drugs of Enuma Elish, in response to the recognized exemplars, in addition to assurance of a couple of different texts that endure on, or are concept to undergo on, Mesopotamian notions of the beginning of the area, mankind, and the gods. New versions of seventeen extra "creation stories" are supplied, together with "Enmesharra's Defeat," "Enki and Ninmah," "The Slaying of Labbu,' and "The Theogony of Dunnu."

Lambert can pay unique consciousness, after all, to the relationship of the most epic, Enuma Elish, with the increase and position of Marduk within the Babylonian pantheon. He strains the improvement of this deity's beginning and upward thrust to prominence and elaborates the connection of this article, and the others mentioned, to the non secular and political weather Babylonia.

The quantity comprises 70 plates (primarily hand-copies of some of the exemplars of Enuma Elish) and broad indexes.

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In the Epic, this question arises particularly in the expositions of the 50 names, which we have so far left out of the discussion. : marūtuk šá ul-tu ṣi-ti-šú im-bu-ú-šú a-bu-šú da-num VI 123 d If the first name could be excluded, a perfect 2/2 results. With it, the first half of the line is too long. The fact that it does occur at the beginning, and its being the name explained in this and the following lines, could be urged in favour of classifying it as extra metrum. There are others of the 50 names which invite this treatment, but not all.

It is possible that some of it originated in contexts where the names did not occur with the lines. Evidence outside the Epic is inconclusive. The repeated couplets (see AfO 19 [1959/60] 48) in which, at the second occurrence, the name of the god or goddess is inserted, offer the most useful material. Here 28 Babylonian Creation Myths the tendency is to substitute the divine name for a word which occurred the first time, even if the result is not too happy. Cf. Agušaya: ab-ra-at ši-ik-na-as-sà na-ak-la-at ki-ma ma-an-ma-a[n] šu-un-na-at mi-ni-a-tim la ú-ma-aš-ša-lu ši ib zi it ṣa-al-tu-um ši-ik-na-as-sà šu-un-na-at mi-ni-a-tim na-ak-la-at ki-ma ma-an-ma-an la ú-ma-aš-ša-lu ši ib zi it VAS X 214 v 35–42 The substitution of ṣaltum for abrat the second time leaves šiknassa without any description.

The fifth line describes the activity of Apsû and Tiāmat, and the -ma on iḫīqū subordinates the following line logically. Kinnier Wilson, on the strength of one omen passage, takes ḫâqu intransitively and makes the waters also the subject of both verbs in the second line of the couplet. ” The enūma in line 7 certainly starts off a new clause, but since, according to the four-line theory, this is in the middle of a sentence, Kinnier Wilson makes it a subordinate clause within the sentence beginning in line 5.

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